Open Journal Systems

Travel Experience on Travel Satisfaction and Loyalty of BRT Public Transportation

Liza Agustina Maureen Nelloh, Sri Handayani Handayani, Mulyadi Wiguna Slamet, Adhi Setyo Santoso


Abstract. As the only Bus Rapid Transportation (BRT) system public transportation in Jakarta, Indonesia, travel experience factors were important factor to enhance travel satisfaction and loyalty among passengers. However, travel experience is still rare to be tested among public transportation especially for BRT System Company. This study aims to test the travel experience factors (EF’s factors) such as individual space, information provision, staff’s skills, social environment, vehicle maintenance, off-board service, ticket line service, safety, and waiting time on travel satisfaction and customer loyalty. To test the hypotheses, this study employs Structural Equation Model-Partial Least Square with SmartPLS Version 3.0 among 294 passengers. The results shows that individual space, staff’s skills, vehicle maintenance, ticket line service are positively effect on travel satisfaction, then the travel satisfaction has positive influence on customer loyalty. Hence, social environment, off-board service, safety and waiting time have no influence on travel experience. The current findings suggest the government, and management of BRT to maintain the vehicle condition, improve the ticketing service use online system, recruit higher quality drivers, adding more staffs on-board, manage the schedule of buses, and adapt modern system of location. The society must also be educated to create conducive conditions during the travel trip.

Keywords:  BRT System Company; Customer loyalty, Partial Least Square, travel satisfaction, travel experience


BRT System Company; Customer loyalty; Partial Least Square; travel satisfaction; travel experience.

Full Text:



Abou-Zeid, M., Witter, R., Bierlaire, M., Kaufmann, V., & Ben-Akiva, M. (2012). Happiness and travel mode switching: findings from a Swiss public transportation experiment. Transport Policy, 19(1), 93-104.

Ali, F., Kim, W. G., Li, J., & Jeon, H. M. (2018). Make it delightful: Customers' experience, satisfaction and loyalty in Malaysian theme parks. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 7, 1-11.

Beirão, G., & Cabral, J. S. (2007). Understanding attitudes towards public transport and private car: A qualitative study. Transport policy, 14(6), 478-489.

Biscaia, A. R., Rosa, M. J., Moura e Sá, P., & Sarrico, C. S. (2017). Assessing customer satisfaction and loyalty in the retail sector. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 34(9), 1508-1529.

Cai, R., & Chi, C. G. Q. (2018). The impacts of complaint efforts on customer satisfaction and loyalty. The Service Industries Journal, 38(15-16), 1095-1115.

Carreira, R., Patrício, L., Jorge, R. N., Magee, C., & Hommes, Q. V. E. (2013). Towards a holistic approach to the travel experience: a qualitative study of bus transportation. Transport Policy, 25, 233-243.

Carreira, R., Patrício, L., Jorge, R. N., & Magee, C. (2014). Understanding the travel experience and its impact on attitudes, emotions and loyalty towards the transportation provider–A quantitative study with mid-distance bus trips. Transport Policy, 31, 35-46.

Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. In Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 655-690). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Cirillo, C., Eboli, L., & Mazzulla, G. (2011). On the asymmetric user perception of transit service quality. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 5(4), 216-232.

Eboli, L., & Mazzulla, G. (2015). Relationships between rail passengers’ satisfaction and service quality: a framework for identifying key service factors. Public Transport, 7(2), 185-201.

Falk, R. F., & Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. University of Akron Press.

Green, D. H., & Ryans, A. B. (1990). Entry strategies and market performance causal modeling of a business simulation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 7(1), 45-58.

Hair Jnr, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: a global perspective.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In New challenges to international marketing (pp. 277-319). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Henseler, J., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Goodness-of-fit indices for partial least squares path modeling. Computational Statistics, 28(2), 565-580.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Articles, 2.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Kasiri, L. A., Cheng, K. T. G., Sambasivan, M., & Sidin, S. M. (2017). Integration of standardization and customization: Impact on service quality, customer satisfaction, and loyalty. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 35, 91-97.

Lemon, K. N., & Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey. Journal of Marketing, 80(6), 69-96.

Leong, W., Goh, K., Hess, S., & Murphy, P. (2016). Improving bus service reliability: The Singapore experience. Research in Transportation Economics, 59, 40-49.

Mohamed, I. S. (2011). An empirical study on factors determining e-Business usage on business performance in Malaysian service industry.

Nunkoo, R., Teeroovengadum, V., Thomas, P., & Leonard, L. (2017). Integrating service quality as a second-order factor in a customer satisfaction and loyalty model. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(12), 2978-3005.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Malhotra, A. (2005). ES-QUAL: A multiple-item scale for assessing electronic service quality. Journal of service research, 7(3), 213-233.

Patrício, L., Cunha, J. F., Fisk, R. P., & Nunes, N. J. (2004, September). Customer experience requirements for multi-platform service interaction: bringing services marketing to the elicitation of user requirements. In Proceedings. 12th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, 2004. (pp. 26-35). IEEE.

Pavesi, A., Gartner, W., & Denizciâ€Guillet, B. (2016). The Effects of a Negative Travel Experience on Tourists' Decisional Behavior. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(5), 423-433.

Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard business review, 76, 97-105.

Ramayah, T., Yeap, J. A., Ahmad, N. H., Halim, H. A., & Rahman, S. A. (2017). Testing a confirmatory model of facebook usage in smartpls using consistent PLS. International Journal of Business and Innovation (IJBI), 3(2), 1-14.

Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Zimmermann, L. (2011). Customer satisfaction with commercial airlines: The role of perceived safety and purpose of travel. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(4), 459-472.

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., and Becker, J. M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. Boenningstedt: SmartPLS GmbH,

Santoso, A. S., & Nelloh, L. A. M. (2017). User satisfaction and intention to use peer-to-peer online transportation: A replication study. Procedia Computer Science, 124, 379-387.

Shin, D. H. (2015). Effect of the customer experience on satisfaction with smartphones: Assessing smart satisfaction index with partial least squares. Telecommunications Policy, 39(8), 627-641.

Thakur, R. (2018). The role of self-efficacy and customer satisfaction in driving loyalty to the mobile shopping application. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 46(3), 283-303.

Unger, O., Uriely, N., & Fuchs, G. (2016). The business travel experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 61, 142-156.

van Lierop, D., & El-Geneidy, A. (2016). Enjoying loyalty: The relationship between service quality, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions in public transit. Research in Transportation Economics, 59, 50-59.

Verhoef, P. C., Lemon, K. N., Parasuraman, A., Roggeveen, A., Tsiros, M., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2009). Customer experience creation: Determinants, dynamics and management strategies. Journal of retailing, 85(1), 31-41.

Wahyuningtyas, S. Y. (2016). The Online Transportation Network in Indonesia: A Pendulum between the Sharing Economy and Ex Ante Regulation. Competition and Regulation in Network Industries, 17(3-4), 260-280.

Yusof, Y., Awang, Z., Jusoff, K., & Ibrahim, Y. (2017). The influence of green practices by non-green hotels on customer satisfaction and loyalty in hotel and tourism industry. International Journal of Green Economics, 11(1), 1-14.



  • There are currently no refbacks.