Open Journal Systems

Practice of Triple Helix (TH) Model in Malaysian Research Universities (RU)

Munshi Naser Ibne Afzal, Susmita Dutta, Kasim Bin HJ. MD. Mansur, Roger Lawrey


Abstract. Innovation is one of the key elements of countries’ competitiveness. In the face of continuous world economic changes, the Triple Helix Model (University-Industry-Government) relationship allows many countries to improve and accelerate their innovation processes. In developing countries, which are in transition towards innovation-based economies, such as Malaysia, Triple Helix (TH) can serve as a tool to speed up this transition.  This paper explores the implementation of Triple Helix to discover the extent of collaboration between companies and universities both on a global scale and particularly in Malaysia. The study uses a quantitative methodology based on an integrative analysis of literature, secondary data and results of a survey, conducted among four Malaysian research based universities. The research finds that the average performance of Malaysian research based public universities in the Triple Helix system is generally good. For individual universities this study finds that the National University of Malaysia (UKM) has performed above average, while University of Malaya (UM) shows below average performance among major research universities in Malaysia. The findings of this research highlight the need to solve the identified problems in parallel with implementation of the open innovation concept in university-industry collaborations.


Keywords: Triple Helix, Research University (RU), Technology Commercialisation, Innovation, Malaysia


Triple Helix; Research University (RU); Technology Commercialization, Malaysia

Full Text:



Afonso, O., Monteiro, S., & Thompson, M. (2012). A growth model for the quadruple helix. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 13(5), 849–865.

Castellacci, F., & Natera, J. M. (2013). The dynamics of national innovation systems: A panel cointegration analysis of the coevolution between innovative capability and absorptive capacity. Research Policy, 42(3), 579-594.

Chandran, V. G. R., Hayter, C. S., & Strong, D. R. (2015). Personal strategic alliances: enhancing the scientific and technological contributions of university faculty in Malaysia. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 24(5), 421-435.

Chandran, V. G. R., Sundram, V. P. K., & Santhidran, S. (2013). Innovation systems in Malaysia: a perspective of university—industry R&D collaboration. AI & Soc, 29(3), 435-444.

Cheng, M. Y., Chan, W.S., & Mahmood, A. (2009). The effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in Malaysia. Education + Training, 51(7), 555-566.

Chuah, F., Ting, H., Run, E. C., & Cheah, J. H. (2016). Reconsidering What Entrepreneurial Intention Implies: The Evidence from Malaysian University Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 7(9), 85-98.

Din, B. H., Anuar, A. R., & Usman, M. (2016). The Effectiveness of the Entrepreneurship Education Program in Upgrading Entrepreneurial Skills among Public University Students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224, 117-123.

Eleventh Malaysia Plan (2016-2020).

Etzkowitz, H. (1990). The Second Academic Revolution: The role of the research university in economic development. In The research system in transition(pp. 109-124). Springer, Dordrecht.

Etzkowitz, H. (2003). Innovation in Innovation: The Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations. Social Science Information, 42(3), 293-338.

Etzkowitz, H. (2014). The entrepreneurial university wave: From ivory tower to global economic engine. Industry & Higher Education, 28(4), 223-232.

Hamidon, I. N.B., Bin Suhaimie, M. H., bin Mat Yunoh, M. N., & binti Hashim, H. (2017). Entrepreneurial intention among employees: an insight of entrepreneurial university in Malaysia. International Journal, 2(3), 01-13.

Intarakumnerd, P., & Schiller, D. (2009). University-industry linkages in Thailand: Successes, failures, and lessons learned for other developing countries. Seoul Journal of Economics, 22(4), 551.

Iqbal, A.M., Khan, A.S., Bashir, F., & Senin, A.A. (2015). Evaluating National Innovation System of Malaysia Based on University-industry Research Collaboration: A System Thinking Approach. Asian Social Science, 11(13), 45-60.

Ismail, N., Nor, M. J. M., & Sidek, S. (2015). A Framework for a Successful Research Products Commercialisation: A Case of Malaysian Academic Researchers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 283-292.

Leydesdorff, L., & Meyer, M. (2006). Triple Helix indicators of knowledge-based innovation systems: Introduction to the special issue. Research policy, 35(10), 1441-1449.

Leydesdorff, L., & Meyer, M. (2007). The Scientometrics of a Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations (Introduction to the topical issue). Scientometrics, 70(2), 207-222.

Mok, K. H. (2013). The quest for an entrepreneurial university in East Asia: impact on academics and administrators in higher education. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(1), 11-22.

Noordin, S.A., Mohamad, R. F. R. & Shuhidan, S. M. (2015), A Pilot Study On The Sustainability Of The Engineers’ Technical Knowledge Repository (KR) Establishment: A Malaysian Case. Asian Journal of Technology Management, 8(2), 75-82.

Othman, N.B., & Othman, S. H. (2017). The Perceptions of Public University Students of Entrepreneurship Education in Malaysia. International Business Management, 11(4), 865-873.

Phuc, N. H. & Matsuura, Y. (2016). Modeling and Analysing Academic Researcher Behavior. Asian Journal of Technology Management, 9(2), 80-87.

Ramli, N., & Zainol, Z. A. (2013, June). University-Industry Collaboration: A Catalyst towards Entrepreneurial University. In Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Economic Malaysia, Volume (Vol. 3, pp. 7-9).

Ramli, M. F., and Senin, A. A. (2015). Success factors to reduce orientation and resources-related barriers in university-industry R&D Collaboration particularly during development research stages. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 375-382.

Razak, A. A., & Saad, M. (2007). The role of universities in the evolution of the triple helix culture of innovation network: The case of Malaysia. International Journal of Technology management and Sustainable Development, 6(3), 211-225.

Razak, A. A., & White, G. R. (2015). The Triple Helix model for innovation: a holistic exploration of barriers and enablers. International Journal of Business Performance and Supply Chain Modelling, 7(3), 278-291.

Shapira, P., Youtie, J., Yogeesvaran, K., & Jaafar, Z. (2006). Knowledge economy measurement: Methods, results and insights from the Malaysian Knowledge Content Study. Research Policy, 35, 1522-1537.

Sohn, D.-W., & Kenney, M. (2007). Universities, clusters, and innovation systems: The case of Seoul, Korea. World Development, 35(6), 991–1004.

Sooampon, S., & Igel, B. (2014). The individual’s perceived environment as an antecedent of academic entrepreneurship: Multiple case studies of Thai university researchers. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(1), 57–90.

Subramonian, H., & Rasiah, R. (2016). University-industry collaboration and technological innovation: sequential mediation of knowledge transfer and barriers in automotive and biotechnology firms in Malaysia. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, DOI: 10.1080/19761597.2016.1151177

Wahid, H.AB., Rhouseb, S. M., Mustaffa, W. S. W., &Rahman, A. R. (2016). Social Entrepreneurship and Resilience among Public University Students in Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 6(12), 171-184.

Wignaraja, G. (2013). Understanding Innovation in Production Networks in East Asia. Asian Development Bank.

Wong, C. Y., & Goh, K. L. (2010). Modeling the behaviour of science and technology: self-propagating growth in the diffusion process. Scientometrics, 84(3), 669-686.

Wong, P.-K., Ho, Y.-P., & Singh, A. (2007). Towards an “entrepreneurial university” model to support knowledge-based economic development: the case of the National University of Singapore. World Development, 35(6), 941–958.

Wonglimpiyarat, J. (2011). Government programmes in financing innovation: Comparative innovation system cases of Malaysia and Thailand. Technology in Society, 33, 156-164.

Yusof, M., & Jain, K. K. (2010). Categories of university-level entrepreneurship: a literature survey. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(1), 81–96.

Yusof, M., Siddiq, M, S., & Nor, L. M. (2012). Internal Factors of Academic Entrepreneurship: the case of Four Malaysian Public Research Universities. Journal of Entrepreneurship, management and Innovation, 8(1), 84-115.



  • There are currently no refbacks.