Analysis of The Relationship Between Personal Competencies and Individual Work Performance with Job Specialization, Formalization, and Centralization as Moderators
Abstract. This research examines the impact of personal competencies on individual work performance when performing maintenance activities and examines job specialization, formalization, and centralization as moderator variables. For the analysis, we use questionnaires data from 741 respondents of maintenance officers in the Signalling and Telecommunication Departement at PT KAI (Persero). The results showed that personal competencies significantly affecting individual work performance with a correlation value of 0.001 ( <0.05), and other results related to job Specialization and Centralization as moderator variables demonstrated that these two variables could not be treated as moderators in strengthening the relationship between personal competencies and performance. The results showed correlation value of 0.847 ( >0.05) and 0. 173 (>0.05), respectively. This research's formalization variable was not used in the hypothesis testing stage as a moderator because it lacked instrument validity. This study recommends that maintenance officers have better individual work performance when management focuses on increasing the personal competencies or focuses on increasing competencies in work fields that require special skills by the scope of work they face.
Keywords: Personal Competencies. Individual Work Performance. Job Specialization. Formalization. Centralization
Boyatzis, R. E. (2008). Competencies in the 21st century. Journal of management development, 27(1), 5–12.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2011). Managerial and leadership competencies: A behavioral approach to emotional, social and cognitive intelligence. Vision, 15(2), 91-100.
Boyatzis, R. E., and Goleman, D. (2001), Emotional Competency Inventory. Boston, MA: The Hay Group.
Boyatzis, R.E., Goleman, D. and Hay Acquisition (2007), Emotional and Social Competency Inventory. Boston, MA: The Hay Group..
Braun, E., Woodley, A., Richardson, J. T., & Leidner, B. (2012). Self-rated competences questionnaires from a design perspective. Educational Research Review, 7(1), 1-18.
Campbell, J. P., & Wiernik, B. M. (2015). The modeling and assessment of work performance. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior,2, 47-74.
Colquitt, J., Lepine, J. A., & Wesson, M. J. (2019). Organizational behavior: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace (6th edition). NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Côté, S., & Miners, C. T. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. Administrative science quarterly, 51(1), 1-28.
Dalton, D. R., Todor, W. D., Spendolini, M. J., Fielding, G. J., & Porter, L. W. (1980). Organization structure and performance: A critical review. Academy of management review, 5(1), 49-64.
Dewar, R. D., Whetten, D. A., & Boje, D. (1980). An examination of the reliability and validity of the Aiken and Hage scales of centralization, formalization, and task routineness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(1),120-128.
Donaldson, L. (2006). The contingency theory of organizational design: challenges and opportunities. In Organization design (pp. 19-40). Springer, Boston, MA.
Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005). The relevance of emotional intelligence for leadership performance. Journal of General Management, 30(3), 71-86.
Fairchild, A. J., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2009). A general model for testing mediation and moderation effects. Prevention Science, 10(2), 87-99.
Goleman, D. (2001). An EI-based theory of performance. In C. Cherniss & D. Goleman (Eds.,) The emotionally intelligent workplace: How to select for, measure, and improve emotional intelligence in individuals, groups, and organizations, (pp. 27-44).
Higgs, M. (2004). A study of the relationship between emotional intelligence and performance in UK call centres. Journal of Managerial Psychology,19(4), 442-454.
Iverson, R. D., & Roy, P. (1994). A causal model of behavioral commitment: Evidence from a study of Australian blue-collar employees. Journal of management, 20(1), 15-41.
Law, K. S., Wong, C. S., & Song, L. J. (2004). The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies. Journal of applied Psychology, 89(3), 483.
Matthews, G., Emo, A. K., Funke, G., Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., Costa Jr, P. T., & Schulze, R. (2006). Emotional intelligence, personality, and task-induced stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12(2), 96-107.
Morgeson, F. P., & Humphrey, S. E. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. Journal of applied psychology, 91(6), 1321–1339.
Murray, P. (2003). Organisational learning, competencies, and firm performance: empirical observations. The learning organization, 10, (5), 305-316.
Podsakoff, P. M., Niehoff, B. P., MacKenzie, S. B., & Williams, M. L. (1993). Do substitutes for leadership really substitute for leadership? An empirical examination of Kerr and Jermier′ s situational leadership model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 54(1), 1-44.
Price, J. L. (1997). Handbook of organizational measurement. International journal of manpower, 18(4-1), 305-558.
Slaski, M., & Cartwright, S. (2002). Health, performance and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study of retail managers. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 18(2), 63-68.
Spencer, L. M., & Spencer, P. S. M. (1993). Competence at Work models for superior performance. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons.
Taveggia, T. C., & Hedley, R. A. (1976). Job specialization, work values, and worker dissatisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 9(3), 293-309.
Vito Aliaga Araujo, S. & Taylor, S.N. (2012). The influence of emotional and social competencies on the performance of Peruvian refinery staff. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 19(1), 19-29.
Whisman, M. A., & McClelland, G. H. (2005). Designing, testing, and interpreting interactions and moderator effects in family research. Journal of family psychology, 19(1), 111-120.
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of management, 17(3), 601-617.
Wong, C. S., Law, K. S., & Wong, P. M. (2004). Development and validation of a forced choice emotional intelligence measure for Chinese respondents in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 21(4), 535-559.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Copyright @2017. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial used, distribution and reproduction in any medium