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Peran Ekspatriat dalam Penguatan Kompetensi Inti Perusahaan

Dian Prihadyanti, Karlina Sari, Dudi Hidayat

Abstract


Abstrak. Kompetensi inti (KI) menjadi hal penting bagi perusahaan dikarenakan perannya dalam menentukan keunggulan bersaingnya. KI dihasilkan melalui pembelajaran oleh SDM perusahaan melalui sumber pengetahuan internal dan eksternal. Salah satu sumber pengetahuan eksternal yang penting bagi perusahaan adalah ekspatriat. Namun demikian, disamping pemanfaatan ekspatriat yang belum optimal di Indonesia terutama dalam hal knowledge transfer (KT), belum banyak pula literatur yang mengeksplorasi hal ini. Tulisan ini membahas peran ekspatriat dalam penguatan KI dari perusahaan lokal di Indonesia. Penelitian kualitatif dengan multiple case studies melalui wawancara dan observasi di perusahaan ini menemukan bahwa ekspatriat cenderung berperan memperkuat KI yang telah ada di perusahaan. Pengetahuan dari ekspatriat berperan mengisi gap of knowledge dari individu/tim sebagai pendamping dari ekspatriat. Dengan didukung oleh keahlian dan pengetahuan yang telah dimiliki, tenaga lokal dapat meningkatkan kapabilitas serta kapasitasnya, sehingga akumulasinya dapat membentuk kompetensi individu/tim. Dengan didukung oleh KI yang ada, tercipta KI yang lebih kuat. KT dari ekspatriat juga berperan membentuk budaya baru di perusahaan. Production capability (PC) yang terbentuk lebih banyak didukung oleh explicit knowledge dari ekspatriat, sedangkan innovation capability (IC) lebih banyak terbentuk melalui akuisisi tacit knowledge dari ekspatriat. PC dan IC tersebut membentuk kompetensi individu dan tim yang memperkuat KI perusahaan.

Kata kunci: Ekspatriat, core competence, pembelajaran, kapabilitas teknologi, manajemen SDM, budaya perusahaan


Abstract. Core competence (CC) is important for firm in determining its competitive advantage. CC is generated through learning by utilizing internal and external knowledge sources. One of the important sources of external knowledge for companies is expatriates. However, in Indonesia expatriates have not been optimally utilized, especially in terms of knowledge transfer (KT) purpose and only few literatures that explores this. This paper discusses the role of expatriates in strengthening CC in Indonesian local companies. This qualitative research with multiple case studies through interviews and observations in Indonesian local company found that expatriates tend to play a role in strengthening existing CC. Knowledge from expatriates filled the gap of knowledge of the individual / team as a co-worker of the expatriate through knowledge acquisition. Supported by existing expertise and knowledge, local employee could improve their capabilities and capacities, and the accumulation could shape individual / team competencies. Supported by existing CC, a stronger one could be created. KT from expatriates also plays a role in shaping the new corporate culture. Production capability (PC) was more supported by explicit knowledge from expatriates, while innovation capability (IC) was formed through tacit knowledge acquisition from expatriates. These capabilities formed individual and team competencies that strengthen the existing CC.

Keywords: Expatriate, core competence, learning, technological capability, human resource management, company’s culture


Keywords


expatriate, core competence, learning, technological capability, human resource management

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12695/jmt.2018.17.2.4

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