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Stabilitas Bank, Tingkat Persaingan Antar Bank dan Diversifikasi Sumber Pendapatan: Analisis Per Kelompok Bank di Indonesia

Buddi Wibowo

Abstract


Abstrak. Paradigma “competition-fragility” dan “competition-stability” memiliki alur logika yang bertentangan atas hubungan antara kompetisi antar dan stabilitas bank. Menurut Berger et al (2009), kedua pandangan tersebut berbeda pada aspek yang berkaitan dengan risiko kredit (loan risk), namun pada risiko yang dihadapi bank secara keseluruhan, kedua pandangan tersebut memiliki prediksi yang sama. Pada pasar kredit yang didominasi oleh bank dengan market power yang besar, risiko portfolio kredit bank memang akan naik seperti yang diprediksi oleh pandangan “competition-fragility”, namun risiko bank secara keseluruhan tidak selalu ikut naik bersamaan dengan naiknya risiko portfolio kredit. Uji empirik pada perbankan Indonesia mendukung hipotesis tersebut, kecuali pada kelompok bank asing yang memiliki model bisnis tersendiri. Hubungan kompetisi dan risiko kredit bank di Indonesia juga terbukti memiliki pola U -shape yaitu kompetisi yang meningkat pada tahap awal dapat menekan risiko kredit, salah satunya melalui peningkatan diversifikasi pendapatan dan jenis kredit bank, namun pada titik tertentu meningkatnya kompetisi justru memperburuk kualitas portfolio kredit perbankan.

Kata Kunci: Kompetisi Perbankan,Risiko, Stabilitas, Diversifikasi

Abstract. The"Competition-fragility" view and The "Competition-stability" view has a contrary logical flow in predicting the relationship between bank stability and competition among banks. According to Berger et al (2009), these two views differ on credit risk aspect of loan portfolio, but on the risks faced by the bank as a whole, these two views have the same prediction. In the credit market which is dominated by few banks with substantial market power, the risk of bank credit portfolio increases as predicted by the view "competition-fragility", but the bank's overall risk does not always go up with the jump in credit portfolio risk. The paper shows that empirical test of the Indonesian banking system support this hypothesis, except in foreign bank group that has its own business model. The relationship of competition and the credit risk of banks in Indonesia also have a U -shape pattern that increasing competition in the early stages can reduce credit risk, which is due to increasing income diversification and diversification of bank credit type, but at a certain point the increasing competition has worsened the quality of bank credit portfolio.


Key word: Banking Competition, Risk, Stability, Diversification


Keywords


Kompetisi Perbankan, Stabilitas, Diversifikasi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12695/jmt.2016.15.2.5

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